Frequently ask Questions
Below are some of the most frequently asked questions.
Q1. When's the best time of day to exercise? Questioned by Maria, Alborg, Denmark
Everyone has their own theories and preferences about the "right" time of the day to exercise. As a rule-of-thumb, most people seem to be strongest in the afternoon or evening. And most of the studies I've seen also show that muscle strength wanes in the morning and gradually improves until it peaks in the early evening.
Hormones such as testosterone (an "anabolic" hormone) and cortisol (a "catabolic" hormone) also vary during the day. Testosterone, for example, peaks in the morning and drops at the end of the day.However, while resting testosterone levels reach a low point in the evening, the rise in testosterone after exercise appears to be greater in the evening than it is in the morning .Resting levels of the hormone cortisol are also higher in the morning and lower in the evening. But the cortisol response to exercise is lower in the early evening (7.00pm) compared with the morning (7.00am).now forget this science, It's a lot more important to exercise and be consistent than to waste time and energy second-guessing whether you're training at the "right" or "wrong" time of day.
Q2. Which exercise can make my breast firm? Questioned by Ms. Nish Gupta, Kanpur, India.
No exercise will firm breast tissue, given the fact that it is fat. In actuality if you workout too much, you may reduce your breast size because you're burning fat. If you want an example of this, take a look at female bodybuilders. They often need implants in order to have breasts at all. That is the extreme of course. To firm the breast muscles, you will have to exercise the pectorals. That can be done by a variety of muscle machines in a gym, visit, and types of exercise, resistance training, and chest exercise.
Q3. Do high-protein diets cause bone loss? Questioned by Jessica boon, USA.
The reason for this fear is that increasing protein in the diet beyond a certain level will tend to produce more calcium in the urine. It was assumed by many that this calcium must be coming from the bones, and that low carb diets, which are generally higher in protein, would lead to bone loss. This led to a number of studies over the last few years to investigate this point.
As of May 2006, the scientists conducting the studies continue to be "surprised" by the result that more protein in the diet at the very least causes no harm, and in most studies improves bone density rather than causes bone loss. This makes some intuitive sense, since bones are one of the most protein-dense tissues in the body. Several of the studies suggest that increased protein intake improves calcium absorption from food. Whether adding protein improves bones may be partly a function of how much protein the person was eating to begin with. But it is interesting that in several studies comparing the bones of people eating the standard "recommended daily requirement" of protein (.8 grams of protein per kg of body weight) with those eating more protein found that those who ate more protein than the standard recommendation had less bone loss.
Q4. Do we have to train lower and upper abdominal separately? Questioned by Rubbin, Nottingham, UK.
Some fitness experts will tell you there are distinct "upper and lower" abdominals, which need to be exercised differently.Others say that rectus abdominis (the six-pack look is the result of bands of connective tissue that "cut" into rectus abdominis) is just one muscle, and doing separate exercises for the upper and lower abs is a waste of time.
Q5. So, who's right?
Some studies do appear to show that certain exercises are more effective for the lower abs than others. Scientists from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, for example, used electromyography (known simply as EMG) to measure abdominal muscle activity during various exercises, including the trunk curl, reverse curl, v-sit, and twist curl (these animated demonstrations aren't exactly the same as the exercises used in the study, but they're close enough).
• Of the exercises tested, the reverse curl led to the greatest amount of activity in the lower abdominals.
• The trunk curl, reverse curl, twist curl, and v-sit all resulted in similar amounts of upper abdominal activity.
This study suggests that you can put greater emphasis on the upper or lower abdominals depending on the exercise you do. But it certainly doesn't show that you can work the lower and upper rectus abdominis separately.More interesting still, Professor Stuart McGill, an expert in spine function at the University of Waterloo in Canada, points out that a distinct upper and lower rectus abdominis does not exist in most people ."There's a muscle called pyramidalius, which is a lower muscle that overlays the bottom beads of rectus, but only in some people - it's an optional muscle," says McGill.In other words, those using EMG who claim there is an upper and lower rectus abdominis might simply be monitoring pyramidalius.
Q6. When's the best time to stretch? Questioned by Robbin, Panipath, India.
The best time to stretch is when your muscles are warmed up. If they are not already warm before you wish to stretch, then you need to warm them up yourself, usually by performing some type of brief aerobic activity (joint rotation, walking, jogging etc). Obviously, stretching is an important part of warming-up before and cooling-down after a workout If the weather is very cold, or if you are feeling very stiff, then you need to take extra care to warm-up before you stretch in order to reduce the risk of injuring yourself.
Q7. Is it safe to exercise during my menstruation and exercise? Questioned by Catherine tokar, Auckland,New Zealand
According to the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, for the majority of women, there is no reason why menstruation should interfere with their daily activities, including exercise. In fact, regular exercise is recommended as one of the ways to alleviate the pain and discomfort that some women experience before and during menstruation. Dysmenorrhea is a medical term which means menstrual pain and cramping,
Dysmenorrhea is thought to be caused by prostaglandins, a natural chemical that stimulates the uterus to contract to expel blood. Prostaglandins make blood vessels constrict, slowing down blood flow to the uterus. Insufficient blood flow can cause pain in the same way that not enough blood to the heart causes chest pain.
Exercise is thought to ease dysmenorrhea for two reasons. One, aerobic exercise releases endorphins, natural painkillers produced by the body, which can help dull menstrual pain. Two, exercise may alter prostaglandin production. Exercise can also help even out mood swings, anxiety and depression that occur in some women. It can aid in reducing bloating because sweating releases body water. But the decision to do so lies strictly with you. If you feel that exercise makes you feel worse during menstruation, stop completely or reduce the intensity and duration. It's your body and mind, no one can argue with you if you don't feel comfortable about exercising during your monthly period.
Q8. Can I perform abdominal exercise throughout my pregnancy? Questioned by Sneha joshi, Dombivali, India.
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines for the safe prescription of exercise state:Women should avoid exercise in the supine position after the first trimester. Such a position is associated with decreased cardiac output in most pregnant women. Because the remaining cardiac output will be preferentially distributed away from splanchnic beds (including the uterus) during vigorous exercise, such regimens are best avoided during pregnancy.
Q9. What is whey protein? Questioned by Ali, Karachi, Pakistan.
Whey protein is a co-product of the cheese making process; it is the name for a collection of globular proteins that can be isolated from whey, a by-product of cheese manufactured from cow's milk. It is typically a mixture of beta-lactoglobulin (~65%), alpha-lactalbumin (~25%), and serum albumin (~8%), which are soluble in their native forms, independent of pH. Whey has the highest biological value of any known protein. Whey is a component of milk. Simply put, it's the protein that remains after the cheese-making process uses, up casein molecules.
Q10. What is Creatine? Questioned by Shohaib , Lahore , Pakistan.
Supplement form of creatine is a white, flavorless, odorless and crystalline powder, clear and colorless solution.The chemical name for Creatine is methyl guanidine-acetic acid. Creatine is a compound that can be made in our bodies or taken as a dietary supplement. Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid which helps to supply energy to muscle cells.Creatine functions as part of an ATP-CP energy system which ensures that the free energy of ATP remains high and minimizes the loss of adenosine nucleotides, which would cause cellular dysfunction. In the human body, creatine is synthesized mainly in the liver by the use of parts from three different amino acids - Arginine, Glycine, and Methionine,then it is transported in the blood and taken up by muscle cells where it is converted to creatine phosphate(also called phosphocreatine) and store there until it is used as chemical energy. 95% of creatine is later stored in the skeletal muscles, with the rest in the brain, heart, and testes. The average human body contains over 100-120 grams of creatine and uses 2 grams of creatine per day to maintain proper energy metabolism. This same amount is normally resynthesized by the body.
Q11. Why do I find myself shivering when I get cold? Questioned by Beryl ,Ontario,Canada.
Shivering is involuntary muscle tensing that generates heat and offers a warming effect. When you first become slightly chilled (such as when watching a football game), you'll find youself doing an isometric type of muscle tensing that can increase your metabolic rate two to four times. As you get further chilled, you'll find yourself hopping from foot to foot and jumping around. This is Nature's way to get you to generate heat and warm your body.
Q12. Why do I gain weight in the winter? Questioned by Lata ,Vashi,India.
Some people eat more in the winter because they are less active. Instead of playing tennis, they are eating mindlessly in front of the TV. For others, the change of seasons has a marked affect upon their mood (known as seasonal affective disorder, or SAD). Changes in brain chemicals increase carbohydrate cravings and the desire to eat more. Holiday temptations also contribute to weight gain. A study of 195 people indicates they gained on average 0.8 pounds in the six weeks between Thanksgiving and New Years. Overweight and obese people gained even more, with about 14% of the group gaining more than five pounds.
Q13. Does cigarette filter help? Questioned by Caelyn, China.
The filters are usually made from cellulose acetate, and studies have shown that smokers commonly ingest and/or inhale some of these fibres. This happens because small fragments of cellulose acetate become separated from the filter at the end face. The cut surface of the filter of nearly all cigarettes has these fragments. This means that if you smoke a filter cigarette you are likely to have small fragments of plastic-like material in your respiratory tubes and lungs.
Do not let this be an excuse to go back to smoking unfiltered cigarettes. It is the direct exposure. Cigarette smoke damages your heart as well as your lungs. Carbon monoxide and nicotine are the two chemicals in cigarette smoke that probably have the most effect on the heart. Carbon monoxide attaches to red blood cells, so that in smokers up to half the blood can be carrying carbon monoxide rather than oxygen.
Q14. What Is The Muscle Hypertrophy? Questioned by Shubham, Mumbai, India.
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is one of the adaptation mechanisms of the living system to the environment. Muscle hypertrophy is observed in both skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. It is generally accepted that mammalian skeletal muscle is enlarged by exercise overloads and is reduced by disuse, this is known as muscle hypertrophy.
Q15. What is sport bra? What is its use? Questioned by Ruby, Amritsar, India.
Sports bras are designed to provide support to women's breasts and minimize breast movement while exercising or playing sports. Sports bras were developed to reduce breast motion while exercising or playing sports. Breast motion is difficult to reduce without a sports bra because the ligaments in the breasts do not contain strong structural support. If you play sports exercise and do not wear a sports bra, you will put yourself at risk of of causing irreversible damage to ligaments in the breasts. Damage to the ligaments in the breasts could cause premature sagging that will last a lifetime. However, sports bra that is hand washed will usually last longer than a sports bra that is machine washed and tumbled dried.
Q16. How to remove stretch marks? Questioned by Mohammad, Dubai, U.A.E.
There is nothing you can do to get rid of stretch marks. However, the following cocktail is awesome for preventing stretch marks.When its applied where the stretch marks commonly appear. Make a mixture of virgin olive oil, aloe vera gel, Vitamin E oil, and Vitamin A oil and apply it to areas where you are predisposed to tight skin.