What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder, marked by elevated level of sugar in the blood, that is it prevents the body to utilize glucose completely or partially due to lack of insulin. Insulin is hormone made in the pancreas which allows glucose and other nutrients to enter muscle cells, where they can be stored for later or burned for energy. When the body has a problem making insulin or the body cells do not respond to insulin in the right way diabetes results, it is also called Diabetes mellitus.
Types of Diabetes:
1: Type 1 Diabetes-In this type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. A person who has type 1 diabetes must take insulin daily to live.
2: Type 2 Diabetes- In this type 2 diabetes ,the pancreas is usually producing enough insulin, but for unknown reasons, the body cannot use the insulin effectively, a condition called insulin resistance. After several years, insulin production decreases. The result is the same as for type 1 diabetes--glucose builds up in the blood and the body cannot make efficient use of its main source of fuel.
Dietary Guidelines for diabetes
1. Diet prescription of diabetic person is depends upon sex, age, height, weight & type of activity of the patients & timings.
2. Fibers in diet plays a very important role in stabilize the blood sugar. High fiber diet increases satiety, lower serum cholesterol, delays gastric emptying slow glucose absorption & slow starch hydrolysis. Diet high in complex carbohydrates & protein are also helpful for diabetic patient. Complex carbohydrates improves glucose metabolism without increasing insulin secreation, protein supplies essential amino acids.
3. High (complete) protein intake helps to increase insulin production.
4. Calories can be distributed than in 50-60% from carbohydrates10-15% from fat.Low calorie & high fiber diet helps to obese diabetes.
5. Avoid Alcohol intake, as it contributes calories & also damages the liver.
6. Replace simple sugar by complex sugar.
7. Do not skip meals. Even distribution of food helps prevent high and low blood sugars.
8. Time your food intake to the action of your diabetes (insulin) medication.
9. Eat 3 meals a day, plus snacks as needed. Consult your dietitian for guidance.
10. Eating regular meals helps to control hunger and prevents overeating at the next meal.
11. Try to eat at about the same times every day.
12. Limit Your Intake of Fat, Especially Animal Fat. Fat itself does not raise blood sugar, but can lead to being overweight. Excess body weight can raise blood sugar. A high-fat diet also increases your risk of heart disease.
13. Do not eliminate carbohydrate completely rather spread out your carbohydrate intake in small meals throughout day.