Dharna: means Concentration, meaning the ability to focus on something uninterrupted
The first portion o f this accessory corresponds to the last end -process of pratyahara.after drawing back the mind from the senses ,as in the case of abtraction ,the yogi proceeds further to concentrate his mind on specidfied objects.like the mischievoue monkey mind is very difficult to control.try to fix it on a certain point and you will soon find that moves somewhere else.you can achive full concentration through regular practice of yoga.sage patangali wrote"Dharana is the steadfastness of the mind when the same is bound in a specified locality."Let learn the difference between Pratyahara and Dharana ,in Pratyahara we draw away the mind from the senses and thus bring them under the control of the mind ,whereas in concentration we go further and fix it on a certain object. Thus after drawing back the mind from the senses , the yogi proceeds to concentration his mind on a specified object. Through the pratyahara one can easily learn to draw away the mind from the senses , and they can then be brought under the control of the mind.
Following guidelines should be followed to Dharana
1) In the beginning the student needs to be alone.
2)He/she should have a fixed time and place in which to practice Dharana.
3)Wear confortable clothings.
4)Create vision of himself/herself as he is (sitting,standing ,lying down)and then centralize the attention.
5)Try to avoid all the feelings.And create the rhythm of breath and hormonise the thoughts.watch the breath in and out, feel the coolness around nostrils.
There are many ways of concentration and various things to be concentrated upon. They are physical, ultra-physical or mental. Physical things includes tip of nose,between eyebrow etc. Concentration also made on physical things like sun, om, red spot in your mind and concentrate on it the process becomes ultra physical..Mental concentration includes concentration invardly on any part of your body.
Jyoti Trataka (Method to improve concentration)
To improve concentration,trataka means with steady eyes one should gaze at the smallest object comfortably until tears roll down.
Required resources -
Samai(indian traditional flame) or Candle
1) To avoid distraction of mind and disturbance (flame ofcandle) from the wind,it is suggested that this practice be performed in the corner of a dark room.
2) Light the candle and place it on a small table so that flame is exactly at eye level when sitting,sit in comfortable meditative asnas(sukhasan,padmasan,ardha-padmasana or vajrasana).
3) Adjust the sitting position so that candle is an arm's length away from the body.
4) Close the eyes and order your brain that you have to gaze at flame contanstly, Open your eyes and gaze steadily at the tip of the wick.
5) The flame may flicker slightly but the tip of the wick will always remain steady.
6) The eyes should be fixed at the top of flame and spine erect.
7)Donot blink but try and vaoid all the tendencies to close your eyes.Also avoid tendency to shift eyeballs.
8) Achieve the trataka through determination and will power.
9) After a minute or two , when the eyes become tired or begin to water, close them gently.
Bindu tratak (Method to improve concentration)
To improve concentration, mental concentration is a psychophysical practice of concentration.
Required resources - soft mat
1) Chose a place (without any noise or disturbance), sit in Vajrasana / Sukhasana / Padmasana facing a wall with back and head straight. Draw a dot /dark circle at eye level.
2)Close the eyes and order your brain that you have to gaze at flame constantly, Open your eyes and gaze steadily at the tip of the wick.
3) The eyes should be fixed on the dot/small circle with spine erect.
4) Do not blink but try and avoid all the tendencies to close your eyes. Also avoid tendency to shift eyeballs.
5) Achieve the trataka through determination and will power.
6) After a minute or two, when the eyes become tired or begin to water, close them gently.