YamaYama is the first limb of patangali yoga.Yama refers to the five abstentions
The word ahimsa literally mean not to injure or show cruelty to any creature or any person in any way whatsoever. Ahimsa is, however, more than just lack of violence as adapted in yoga. It means kindness, friendliness, and thoughtful consideration of other people and things. It also has to do with our duties and responsibilities too. Ahimsa implies that in every situation we should adopt a considerate attitude and do no harm. This of course,is very difficult to observe totally.we may be ableto refrain from klling animals for our food.but we must survive by eating vegetables,and vegetables are also alive,so there is no way of avoiding this.however, we can live up to this yama on other levels, for instance beating people,abusing people is also himsa. We should have more positive attitude towards others,to be more sensitive towards others,to go beyond our limitations.when you consider what it would be like to be in the same position and you discover that you would not like it, you are opt to feel more compassionate towards that person.
Fasting for long period is also ahimsa, suicide is also ahimsa, violence to yourself.
Truth - is speaking truth.. Satya means "to speak the truth," yet it is not always desirable to speak the truth on all occasions, for it could harm someone unnecessarily. when you tell lie, you have to tell another lie to cover first lie and so on. It creates complications, it alters your attitude towards others .We have to consider what we say, how we say it, and in what way it could affect others. If speaking the truth has negative consequences for another, then it is better to say nothing. Satya should never come into conflict with our efforts to behave with ahimsa.
Non-covetousness -Asteya means non-stealing.the question is, why do we steal in the first place? Because we do not possess a certain thing and we want to have it. Another reason for stealing is to trouble other and this kind of stealing is considered as Himsa.stealing habit can be a disturbed mental state too.but this KELPTOMANIA can be treated by psychiatrist. Non-stealing includes not only taking what belongs to another without permission, but also using something for a different purpose to that intended, or beyond the time permitted by its owner.iii The practice of asteya implies not taking anything that has not been freely given. This includes fostering a consciousness of how we ask for others' time for inconsiderate behavior demanding another's attention when not freely given is, in effect, stealing.
Control over sexual desire -perhaps this is a controversial point because attitude towards sex have altered throughtout history,however sex is our second physical hunger/appetites,so bramacharya does not mean avoiding sex but controlling it ,one should not be obsessed by it than the need to overeat.the basic principle of patangali yoga as life style is to control over all those factors that disturb the mind.Aparigraha
Abstain from possessions/greed-a desire for more and more of anything but never being satisfied brings misery. The great Sanskrit poet bhartrihari in his vairagya sataka decribes the value of grred/possessions. Aparigraha means to take only what is necessary, and not to take advantage of a situation or act greedy. We should only take what we have earned; if we take more, we are exploiting someone else. The yogi feels that the collection or hoarding of things implies a lack of faith in God and in himself to provide for his future.