Exercise Program Designing
Your Goal & its Components
Exercise & it's components to develop Strength.
Exercise & it's components to endurance /stamina.
Exercise & it's components to develop Flexibility.
Warm-upWhat is warm up?
A warm up is a gradual increase in intensity in physical activity. For example, before running or playing an intense sport one might slowly jog to warm muscles. It is important that warm ups should be specific to the exercise that will follow, which means that exercises should prepare the muscles to be used and to activate the energy systems that are required for that particular activity. The warm up process prepares us mentally and physically for the intense task ahead. A proper warm up can increase the blood flow to the working muscle which results in decreased muscle stiffness, less risk of injury and improved performance.
What are the benefits of warm-up?
• Mental Preparation - It mentally prepare us for an intense exercise/event by clearing the mind, increasing focus, reviewing skills and strategy.
• Hormones & enzyme Changes - it increases body's production of various hormones and enzymes responsible for regulating energy production. During warm-up this balance of hormones makes more carbohydrates and fatty acids available for energy production.
• Increased Muscle Temperature - The temperature increases within muscles that are used during a warm-up routine. A warmed muscle both contracts more forcefully and relaxes more quickly. In this way both speed and strength can be enhanced. Also, the probability of overstretching a muscle and causing injury is far less.
• Increased blood circulation - The blood circulation (availability) increases within muscles that are used during an exercise routine. A warmed muscle both contracts more forcefully and relaxes more quickly. In this way both speed and strength can be enhanced. Also, the probability of overstretching a muscle and causing injury is far less.
• Increased Body Temperature - This improves muscle elasticity, also reducing the risk of strains and pulls.
• Neuro-muscular co-ordination- warm up exercises improves co-ordination between muscles and nervous system to improve exercise performance.
• Improve Efficient Cooling - By activating the heat-dissipation mechanisms in the body (efficient sweating) an athlete can cool efficiently and help prevent overheating early in the event or race.
• Blood Vessels Dilate - It reduces the resistance to blood flow by blood vessel dilation, improves venous return and lower stress on the heart.
• Elasticity of muscles- warm up increases in elasticity of muscle and connective tissue.
• Screening mechanism -It provides a screening mechanism for potential musculoskeletal problems that may increases at higher exercise intensities.
Cool downWhat does cooling-down mean?
Cooling down is the term used to describe an easy, full-body exercise that will allow the body to slowly transition from an exercise mode to a non-exercise mode. Depending on the intensity of the exercise, cooling down can involve a slow jog or walk, or with lower intensities, stretching can be used. Cooling down helps release lactic acid in the muscles, reduces the chance of sore muscles and allows the heart rate to return to its resting rate. A cool down will also allow the person to mentally transition to a non-exercise state. Cool downs should involve a gradual yet continuous decrease in exercise intensity (i.e. from a hard run to an easy jog to a brisk walk), stretching, and rehydration. Durations can vary for different people, but 5-10 minutes is considered adequate.What are the benefits of cooling-down?
During aerobic exercise, peripheral veins, particularly within muscle dilate to accommodate the increased blood flow through exercising muscle. The skeletal-muscle pump assists in returning blood to the heart and maintaining cardiac output. A sudden cessation of strenuous exercise may cause blood to pool in peripheral dilated veins and the heart must beat faster and harder to adequately oxygenate the body and maintain blood pressure. A cool-down period allows a more gradual return to venous tone, and allows a gradual decline in heart rate that reduces stress on the organ.
Secondly, when exercising, your heart is pumping large amount of blood to the working muscles. This blood is carrying both oxygen and nutrients that the working muscles need. When the blood reaches the muscles the oxygen and nutrients are used up. Then the force of the contracting (exercising) muscles pushes the blood back to the heart where it is re-oxygenated.
However, when the exercise stops, so does the force that pushes the blood back to the heart. This blood, as well as waste products like lactic acid, stays in the muscles, which in turn causes swelling and pain. This process is often referred to as "blood pooling." • Helps the heart rate and respiration slow down gradually
• Helps avoid dizziness or fainting, which sometimes happens when exercise is stopped suddenly and blood pools in the legs
• Allows your muscles time to recover and repair for the next workout
• Helps your muscles get rid of waste products such as lactic acid
• Helps you end your workout on a good note
Exercise & it's components to develop Strength.What is strength?
Physical strength is the ability of a person to exert force on physical objects using muscles. Increasing physical strength is the goal of strength training. An individual's physical strength is determined by two factors, their genetic inheritance of muscle fiber types and their degree and type of strength training they may undertake.General Co-relations of repetition, sets, rest and output
Which physiological factors effects on muscle strength?
• Limb length- other things being same, people with long limbs may lift more exercise resistance than people with long limbs. As the distance in between exercise joint and weight/resistance increases, required force to lift the weight/resistance increases.
• Muscle length- muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Relative to bone length, some people have long muscles with shirt tendons attachments, while other have short muscles with long tendon attachments. Other things being same, people with relatively long muscles have a greater potential for developing size and strength than people with relatively short muscles.
• Tendon insertion - muscle strength also depends on tendon insertion. For example- Mr. Mehta and Mr. Singh both have same forearm length and biceps strength. However, Mr. Mehta biceps tendon attaches to her forearm a little farther from her elbow joint than Gayle's .this gives Mr. Mehta a biomechanical advantage that enables her to use more resistance than mr.singh in elbow flexion exercise.
• Percentage of muscle fiber type- There is two types of muscle firbers, fast twitch and slow twitch. Some people have (genetic gift) more number of fast twitch muscle fibers. A person with high percentage of fast twitch muscle fiber has more power.
Which physiological factors does not effect on strength?
• Gender- gender does not have effect on strength. Gender does not affect the quality of muscles but gender influences the quantity of muscles. Muscle size and type is influenced by male hormone testosterone that is how male has more muscles. But when evaluated pound per pound basis, men and women demonstrate similar strength performance.
• Age- Men and women of all ages can increases their muscle strength and size through progressive resistance training.
What are the modes of resistance training?
Dumbbells, barbells, plates, machines, springs, eletcronis device and kettle bells.
Exercise & it's components to endurance /stamina.What is flexibility?
Flexibility is the range of motion within a joint along the various planes of motion. A joint itself does not move rather, the body segment that comes together within a joint move within the limitations established by the joints properties.Which factors affects flexibility of joint?
There are various methods to monitor exercise intensity.
• Age and inactivity - Several studies have indicated that there is a distinct relationship between age and degree of flexibility. The greatest increase in flexibility usually occurs upto and between the age of 7 to 12.Aging increases both the diameter of collagen fibers and number of intermolecular cross-links. Aging increases the mount of dehydration in and around soft tissue structures.
Generally, the more active a person is throughout the aging process, the more flexible they will be. When muscles are not actively stretched through a full range of motion, it becomes shorter and less resilient, making it difficult to obtain the balance essential for proper alignment during activity.
• Gender- Although there is no conclusive evidence, females are generally appears much more flexible.one hypothesis for this is that, genetically, females are designed for a greater range of motion, especially in the pelvic region, to accommodate childbearing.
• Pregnancy- In pregnancy, due to secretion of relaxin hormone, range of motion increases, especially in the pelvic and lumbosacral spine. This increase in joint and connective tissue laxity may increase pregnant womens susceptibility to injury.
• Body type & strength training- There is no relation between body type and total body weight and the ability to achieve range of motion.
Strength training does not effect on range of motion at joint, but athletes have to incorporate stretching exercises into the training program. Strength training independently decreases flexibility is a myth.
• A muscle that has been immobilised with a cast will demonstrate increase in stiffness over time (longer than four weeks).
• Increase in body temperature causes a decrease in muscle stiffness. This can be environmental temperature or temperature increases induced by friction of muscle contraction. We therefore tend to be less stiff around 2.00 in the afternoon.
• An increase in intramuscular fluid (fluid in the muscle cell) may increase stiffness due to a splinting effect. This is the proposed reason why use of creatine monohydrate tends to make muscles feel stiffer.
Exercise & it's components to develop Flexibility.What is stamina/endurance?
Endurance/stamina is ability of a person performing low- to medium-intensity exercise for long periods of time. E.g., jogging or running several miles to hundreds of miles; cycling dozens of miles to thousands of miles; swimming hundreds of yards or meters to dozens of miles/km.It depends on ability of a person to take in ,deliver and utilize(by muscles) oxygen. The degree of improvement that may be expected in cardio respiratory fitness is directly related to the frequency, intensity, duration and mode.What is the appropriate recommended endurance exercise program?
Cardio respiratory exercise program is based on FITT, Frequency, intensity, type, time. The ACSM (American College of sports medicine recommendations) are;
• Frequency of exercise -Do moderately intense cardio 30 minutes a day, five days a week Or Do vigorously intense cardio 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week. Moderate-intensity physical activity means working hard enough to raise your heart rate and break a sweat, yet still being able to carry on a conversation. It should be noted that to lose weight or maintain weight loss, 60 to 90 minutes of physical activity may be necessary. The 30-minute recommendation is for the average healthy adult to maintain health and reduce the risk for chronic disease.
• Intensity of exercise - The recommended intensity range is 55 to 90 % of maximum heart rate or between 40 to 85 % of heart rate reserve. Maximum heart rate is calculated by a maximal functional capacity test, using a bicycle or treadmill ergometer, or by age predicted (220-age) maximal heart rate tables. Heart rate reserve is HR (maximum) - HR (resting heart rate).
• Type of exercise - walking, jogging, running, stair climbing, aerobic dance (aerobics), swimming, cross country skiing, Cycling and dance exercises.
• Time/duration of exercise - Do moderately intense cardio 30 minutes a day or Do vigorously intense cardio 20 minutes a day.Deconditioned individuals may benefit from multiple and short duration sessions.
There are various methods to monitor exercise intensity.
• Talk test- talk test is subjective, but it is quite useful in determining a "comfort zone" of aerobic intensity. Exerciser should be able to breathe comfortably and rhythmically through out all phases of a work out to ensure a safe and comfortable level of exercise. Exerciser should able to carry on a comfortable conversation without having to take a breath between each word. In other words, exerciser has to slow down or rest for a movement when a pace of aerobic exercise makes it impossible for them to put more than two words together without taking a breath.
• Borg's scale - Aerobic exercise intensity can also be monitored by assigning a numerical value to subjective feelings of exercise exertion. The popular method is the rating of perceived exertion (RPE).RPE is designed by Dr.Gunnar borg.RPE response also co-relates with very well with cardio respiratory and metabolic factors such as heart rate, breathing rate and oxygen consumptions. The revised RPE/Borg's scale is an ordinal scale with values from 1 to 10.1 is equal to nothing at all(feelings) and 10(feelings) is equal to strong maximum. Individual should exercise between an RPE of 3 to 5. When using the RPE scale is sure to have your client's rate the general feelings caused by the exercise rather than exercise itself.
• Percentage maximum heart rate - This method of monitoring exercise intensity of exercise calculates the exercise heart as percentage of maximum heart rate. This maximum heart rate can be calculated by a maximum functional test, using a bicycle or treadmill ergometer or by age -predicted maximal heart rate (220-age). Training heart arte = 220- age x 60 to 90 %(desired percentage of maximal heart rate).